THE LEGENDARY LENA HORNE PASSES AWAY




FROM THE NEW YORK TIMES

The famous women that I admire most are glamorous and fabulously talented. They tend to be iconic originals that are ahead of their time.

LENA HORNE was definitely one of those larger than life authentic women.

When she came into this world, they broke the mold for good. There will never be another like her.

LENA HORNE, who was the first black performer to be signed to a long term contract by a major Hollywood studio and who went on to achieve international fame as a singer, died on Sunday night at New York Presbyterian/Weill Cornell Medical Center in New York.

She was 92 and lived in Manhattan.

Her death was announced by her son in law Kevin Buckley.

Ms. Horne might have become a major movie star. But she was born fifty years too early and languished at MGM in the 1940s because of the colour of her skin.

Ms. Horne was stuffed into one all star musical after another — THOUSANDS CHEER (1943), BROADWAY RHYTHM (1944), TWO GIRLS & A SAILOR (1944), ZIEGFELD FOLLIES (1946), WORDS & MUSIC (1948) — to sing a song or two that could easily be snipped from the movie when it played in the South, where the idea of an African American performer in anything but a subservient role in a movie with an otherwise all white cast was unthinkable.

“The only time I ever said a word to another actor who was white was Kathryn Grayson in a little segment of Show Boat” included in TILL THE CLOUDS ROLL BY (1946), a movie about the life of Jerome Kern, Ms. Horne said in an interview in 1990.

In that sequence she played JULIE, a mulatto woman forced to flee the showboat because she was married to a white man.

But when MGM made SHOW BOAT into a movie for the second time in 1951, the role of JULIE was given to a white performer, AVA GARDNER, who did not do her own singing.

(Ms. Horne was no longer under contract to MGM at the time and according to JAMES GAVIN’S LENA HORNE biography STORMY WEATHER, she was never seriously considered for the part.)

And in 1947, when Ms. Horne herself married a white man — the prominent arranger, conductor and pianist Lennie Hayton, who was for many years both her musical director and MGM’S — the marriage took place in France and was kept secret for three years.

Ms. Horne’s first MGM movie was PANAMA HATTIE (1942), in which she sang COLE PORTER’S JUST ONE OF THOSE THINGS.

Writing about that film years later, PAULINE KAEL called it “a sad disappointment, though Lena Horne is ravishing and when she sings you can forget the rest of the picture.”

Even before she came to Hollywood, BROOKS ATKINSON, the drama critic for THE NEW YORK TIMES, noticed Ms. Horne in LEW LESLIE’S BLACKBIRDS OF 1939, a Broadway revue that ran for nine performances.

“A radiantly beautiful girl,” he wrote, “who will be a winner when she has proper direction.”

She did have proper direction in two all black movie musicals, both made in 1943.

Lent to 20TH CENTURY FOX for STORMY WEATHER, one of those show business musicals with almost no plot but lots of singing and dancing, Ms. Horne did both triumphantly, ending with the sultry, aching sadness of the title number, which would become one of her signature songs.

In MGM’S CABIN IN THE SKY, the first film directed by Vincente Minnelli, she was the brazen, sexy handmaiden of the Devil.

(One number she shot for that film, AIN’T IT THE TRUTH, which she sang while taking a bubble bath, was deleted before the film was released — not for racial reasons, as her stand alone performances in other MGM musicals sometimes were, but because it was considered too risqué.)

In 1945, in addition to her MGM salary of $1,000 a week, LENA HORNE was earning $1,500 for every radio appearance and $6,500 a week when she played nightclubs. She was also popular with service people, both black and white, during World War II.

“The whole thing that made me a star was the war,” Ms. Horne said in the 1990 interview.

“Of course the black guys couldn’t put Betty Grable’s picture in their footlockers. But they could put mine.”

Touring Army camps for the USO, Ms. Horne was outspoken in her criticism of the way black soldiers were treated.

“So the USO got mad,” she recalled.

“And they said, ‘You’re not going to be allowed to go any place any more under our auspices.’ So from then on I was labeled a bad little Red girl.”

Ms. Horne later claimed that for this and other reasons, including her friendship with leftists like Paul Robeson and W.E.B. DuBois, she was blacklisted and “unable to do films or television for the next seven years” after her tenure with MGM ended in 1950.

This was not quite true: as Mr. Gavin has documented, she appeared frequently on YOUR SHOW OF SHOWS and other television programs in the 1950s and in fact “found more acceptance” on television “than almost any other black performer.”

And Mr. Gavin and others have suggested that there were other factors in addition to politics or race involved in her lack of film work

Although absent from the screen, she found success in nightclubs and on records. LENA HORNE AT THE WALDORF ASTORIA, recorded during a well received eight week run in 1957, reached the Top 10 and became the bestselling album by a female singer in RCA VICTOR’S history.

In the early 1960s Ms. Horne, always outspoken on the subject of civil rights, became increasingly active, participating in numerous marches and protests.

In 1969, she returned briefly to films, playing the love interest of a white actor, Richard Widmark, in DEATH OF A GUNFIGHTER.

She acted in only one other movie after that: In 1978 she played GLINDA THE GOOD WITCH in THE WIZ, the film version of the all black Broadway musical based on THE WIZARD OF OZ.

But she never stopped singing.

She continued to record prolifically well into the 1990s, for RCA and other labels, notably UNITED ARTISTS and BLUE NOTE.

And she conquered Broadway in 1981 with a one person show, LENA HORNE: THE LADY & HER MUSIC, which ran for 14 months and won both rave reviews and a TONY AWARD.

Ms. Horne’s voice was not particularly powerful but it was extremely expressive. She reached her listeners emotionally by acting as well as singing the romantic standards like THE MAN I LOVE and MOON RIVER that dominated her repertory.

The person she always credited as her main influence was not another singer but a pianist and composer, DUKE ELLINGTON’S longtime associate BILLY STRAYHORN.

“I wasn’t born a singer,” she told Mr. Strayhorn’s biographer David Hajdu.

“I had to learn a lot. Billy rehearsed me.”

BILLY STRAYHORN occasionally worked as her
accompanist and she commented, “taught me the basics of music because I didn’t know anything.”

He was also, she said, “the only man I ever loved.” But BILLY STRAYHORN was openly gay and their close friendship never became a romance.

“He was just everything that I wanted in a man,” she told Mr. Hajdu, “except he wasn’t interested in me sexually.”

LENA CALHOUN HORNE was born in Brooklyn on JUNE 30, 1917. All four of her grandparents were industrious members of Brooklyn’s black middle class. Her paternal grandparents EDWIN HORNE and CORA HORNE were early members of THE NATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF COLORED PEOPLE.

In October 1919, at the age of 2, LENA made the cover of the organization’s monthly bulletin.

By then the marriage of her parents, EDNA HORNE and TEDDY HORNE, was in trouble.

“She was spoiled and badly educated and he was fickle,” Ms. Horne’s daughter GAIL LUMET BUCKLEY wrote in her family history THE HORNES.

By 1920 TEDDY had left his job with the New York Department of Labor and fled to Seattle and EDNA was performing on stage in Harlem. Ms. Horne was raised by her paternal grandparents until her mother took her back four years later.

When she was 16, her mother abruptly pulled her out of school to audition for the dance chorus at THE COTTON CLUB – the famous Harlem nightclub where the customers were white, the barely dressed dancers were light skinned blacks, DUKE ELLINGTON was the star of the show and the proprietors were gangsters. A year after joining THE COTTON CLUB chorus she made her Broadway debut in the short lived show DANCE WITH YOUR GODS in 1934.

At 19, Ms. Horne married the first man she had ever dated, 28 year old Louis Jones and became a conventional middle class Pittsburgh wife.

Her daughter GAIL was born in 1937 and a son TEDDY in 1940. The marriage ended soon afterward. Ms. Horne kept GAIL. But Mr. Jones refused to give up TEDDY, although he did allow the boy long visits with his mother.

In 1938, Ms. Horne starred in a quickie black musical film THE DUKE IS TOPS, for which she was never paid. Her return to movies was on a grander scale.

She had been singing at the Manhattan nightclub CAFE SOCIETY when the impresario Felix Young chose
her to star at THE TROCADERO, a nightclub he was planning to open in Hollywood in the fall of 1941.

In 1990, Ms. Horne reminisced: “My only friends were the group of New Yorkers who sort of stuck with their own group – like Vincente, Gene Kelly, Yip Harburg, Harold Arlen and Richard Whorf – the sort of hip New Yorkers who allowed Paul Robeson and me in their houses.”

Since black people were not allowed to live in Hollywood, “Felix Young, a white man, signed for the house as if he was going to rent it,” Ms. Horne said.

“When the neighbours found out, Humphrey Bogart, who lived right across the street from me, raised hell with them for passing around a petition to get rid of me.”

Mr. Bogart “sent word over to the house that if anybody bothered me, please let him know.”

ROGER EDENS, the composer and musical arranger who had been JUDY GARLAND’S chief protector at MGM, had heard the elegant Ms. Horne sing at CAFE SOCIETY her at THE LITTLE TROC.

(The war had scaled Mr. Young’s ambitions down to a small club with a gambling den on the second floor.)

He insisted that Arthur Freed, the producer of MGM’S lavish musicals, listen to Ms. Horne sing. Then Mr. Freed insisted that Louis B. Mayer, who ran the studio, hear her, too. He did – and soon she had signed a seven year contract with MGM.

The NAACP celebrated that contract as a weapon in its war to get better movie roles for black performers. Her father weighed in, too.

In a 1997 PBS interview, she recalled: “My father said, ‘I can get a maid for my daughter. I don’t want her in the movies playing maids.’ ”

Ms. Horne is survived by her daughter GAIL LUMET BUCKLEY. Her husband died in 1971; her son died of kidney failure the same year.

Looking back at the age of 80, Ms. Horne said:

“My identity is very clear to me now. I am a black woman. I’m free. I no longer have to be a credit. I don’t have to be a symbol to anybody; I don’t have to be a first to anybody. I don’t have to be an imitation of a white woman that Hollywood sort of hoped I’d become.”

I’m me…and I’m like nobody else.”

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